The famous, feuding siblings who helped shape modern China | Daily News


 

The famous, feuding siblings who helped shape modern China

Title: BIG SISTER, LITTLE SISTER, RED SISTER

Three Women at the Heart of Twentieth-Century China

Author: Jung Chang

If you were a child growing up in 1980s China, as I was, Chinese Communist Party education began as soon as you could spell your name. The lessons were blissfully simple: The party is unimpeachable; those who assail the party are despicable; the family is a metaphor for our great nation, whose members are all lovingly allied because unity is the most important principle. Around the time I learned to write my name, I heard about the Soong sisters, whose reputation permeated Chinese society like some heady, if slightly unholy, perfume. Once upon a time, the story goes, there were three sisters. One loved money, one loved power and one loved her country. The tale of their divergent paths was like a politically incorrect parable, a lesson in what not to do if one wished to build a cooperative, functional family. Indeed, if the Soong sisters had not actually existed, the story of their operatic lives, had it been conjured in fiction, would surely have been branded by censors as salacious spiritual pollution.

In her introduction to “Big Sister, Little Sister, Red Sister,” Jung Chang recalls her first impression of the Soong sisters as “fairy-tale figures” who, in contrast to the subjects of her previous biographies — Mao and the Empress Dowager Cixi — seemed free of “mental conflicts, moral dilemmas or agonizing decisions.” For that reason, she had not intended to profile the sisters at all but arrived at them circuitously as she set about researching the founding father of modern China, Sun Yat-sen.

Like her beloved memoir, “Wild Swans” (1991), which recounts the evolution of China through the lens of her own life and those of her mother and grandmother, Chang’s new book tells her country’s story through three women of the same family. Before wading into the sisters’ lives, she devotes detailed chapters to two men: Sun, who amassed power mostly by being a ruthless, thuggish blowhard; and Charlie Soong, the paterfamilias of the Soong clan, a former Methodist preacher turned wealthy businessman and underground revolutionary.

Soong’s ardent support for Sun came at least in part from the fact that both men visited the West early in life and harbored admiration for outspoken, confident, learned women. Were it not for Soong’s determination to give his daughters a thoroughly Western education and Sun’s attraction to westernized women, the last 100 years of Chinese history might have turned out very differently.

Around the turn of the 20th century, the Soong daughters became some of the first Chinese women to be educated in America, which led to jobs as English translators for Sun. Big Sister Ei-ling was the first to captivate Sun, but she chose to marry H. H. Kung, a wealthy widower, instead. It was Ching-ling, the middle sister, 25 years Sun’s junior, who went on to be Mme. Sun Yat-sen. In an attempt to emulate the selflessness of Joan of Arc, Ching-ling ended up devoting herself to a man unworthy of her worship. In one harrowing episode early in their marriage, Sun fled the presidential palace and used his wife as bait to ensure his escape. But being the wife of an internationally known firebrand would leave its mark on the young Ching-ling. In the early 1920s, when Sun collaborated with the Soviet Politburo out of political convenience, it was Ching-ling who emerged the true believer and committed Leninist.

Meanwhile, Big Sister Ei-ling, a master strategist who detested the Communists, engineered the union of Little Sister May-ling and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, a dour army commander who positioned himself as Sun’s heir and leader of China’s first modern political party, the Nationalists. Like Sun, the generalissimo craved power and exhibited few scruples. When he assassinated a political rival, the one man Ching-ling loved after Sun’s death, the battle line in the family was drawn for good.

Through the 1930s and ’40s, Ching-ling acted as a covert operative for the Communists, becoming thoroughly Red, and throwing herself into toppling the regime over which her younger sister presided as first lady. The rest of the Soong clan was at the core of the Chiang regime; Ei-ling was his closest political adviser and her husband was put in control of the government coffers. For a while, the Kungs reigned as one of the richest and allegedly most corrupt families in the country.

If Red Sister Ching-ling was Mao’s most glamorous ambassador, little sister May-ling proved her mettle in the United States, where she toured for eight months to secure support for her husband’s regime during World War II. In 1943, when she addressed Congress dressed in a silk cheongsam and speaking impeccable American English, she mesmerized every politician in America and earned a four-minute standing ovation. However, six years later, after the Nationalist defeat, which prompted May-ling and Ei-ling to flee the country, it was Ching-ling’s turn to shine. When Mao proclaimed the People’s Republic in 1949, Ching-ling walked directly behind him onto Tiananmen Gate and served as the new republic’s vice chairman. - New York Times Book Review


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